The author of 1 Peter is almost certainly the Simon Peter of the Gospels; only a few have doubted this. On the other hand, if there is a letter included in the New Testament that was not written by the person who it claims to be written by (“pseudopigraphic,” is the technical term), 2 Peter is our best candidate. It is rather different in style, language, and theme from the first Petrine epistle. The mention of persecution in 1 Peter makes a date in the 60s AD more likely, and by that time in Peter’s life he is traditionally placed in Rome, where he will die by the Emperor’s order in the late 60s. The cryptic mention to being in “Babylon” in 1 Peter 5:13 is most likely referring to Rome, as we will see in Revelation.
The apostle Simon Peter is absolutely a classic Bible character. He ranks up there with Abraham, Moses, and David. Jesus is in a class of his own, of course. Peter is well-known, including much of his psychology. He is a full character. Impetuous Peter! If we go to the Gospels to learn about Peter, we must end that character study with a good look at his letters too. This is where his changed heart comes out the most.
The last recorded instructions Jesus gave to Peter alone were to “feed my sheep” (John 21:15-19). That he does in grand style in 1 Peter. Churches in modern-day Turkey that Peter had either started or ministered to in a special way (1:1) are now experiencing harsh treatment in their society. The recipients are clearly Gentile Christians (with maybe some Jewish Christians thrown in), as they used to live an idolatrous pagan lifestyle (4:3). Now, because of their devotion to Jesus, they refuse to live in the same coarse way that used to. As a result, their pagan neighbors heap abuse on them. This persecution is certainly social versus political; systematic persecution of Christians in Asia Minor by the Roman government won’t start for another twenty years after the death of Peter. Peter’s recipients were mocked and even harmed physically, but the greatest suffering would have been social ostracism and the economic marginalization that would come from being shunned by their pagan society. What is the faithful response to suffering a follower of Christ is supposed to give? This is the main theme of 1 Peter.
Second Peter is either written by Peter at a very different time and place than First Peter (and a convincing case can be made for this) or as more and more conservative scholars are willing to accept, it was written by a disciple of Peter “in the spirit of Peter” or as a way to honor their master. Efforts would have been made to convey what Peter would have said; good pseudopigrapha did not try to deceive readers and pass unorthodox views off as apostolic. Regardless, 2 Peter addresses a group of false teachers akin to the early Gnostics we have seen previously this year. Of special importance in this letter is Peter’s exhortation to his recipients to vigilantly hang on and prepare for the certain coming of Jesus.