A trap very easily fallen into when reading Romans is to bypass the original context and focus solely on what Romans can teach us. Romans 9-11 is a difficult section of Scripture, but that is especially true when we forget about the original context.
Any good Jew in Paul’s time would have been tempted to appeal to their chosen-people status as grounds for salvific confidence. The logic would have gone something like this: Israel was chosen by God, I am a Jew, so I am good with God. That line of logic has a modern equivalent: the Church is composed of God’s elect in this world, I go to church, so I am good with God.
In Romans 10 Paul is taking on this faulty thinking. God isn’t looking for heritage or membership, He is looking for people who truly trust Him and His faithfulness to His promises. God isn’t looking for people who “establish a covenant status of their own” (10:3), He is looking for people who have faith in their hearts, confess that faith with their mouths, and ask with dependency for God to save them (10:10-13). That invitation was given to the Jews and some received it, though others did not (10:21). That invitation is also open to all because it relies upon God’s goodness not those being saved.
If the Jewish Christians in the Roman church thought that being a Jew seals the deal, they missed the boat. If we think being a church member ensures salvation, we too are just as lost.